The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM)
- "Screening (serum screening with or without NT ultra-sound or cell-free DNA screening) and diagnostic testing (CVS or amniocentesis) for chromosomal abnormalities should be discussed and offered to all patients early in pregnancy regardless of maternal age or baseline risk.
- Cell-free DNA is the most sensitive and specific screening test for the common fetal aneuploidies (trisomies 21, 13 and 18) and can be performed any time after 9-10 weeks after gestation"
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)
"Barriers proposed by health care insurers, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), may impact women’s ability to receive genetic testing. One proposal requires that genetic counseling must be provided by an individual "certified" in genetic counseling before genetic testing is ordered..."
American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)
"Noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (NIPS) has been rapidly integrated into prenatal care since the initial American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) statement in 2013. New evidence strongly suggests that NIPS can replace conventional screening for Patau, Edwards, and Down syndromes across the maternal age spectrum, for a continuum of gestational age beginning at 9–10 weeks..."
International Society for Prenatal Diagnosis (ISPD)
"The following protocol options are currently considered appropriate: cfDNA screening as a primary test offered to all pregnant women..."
"The use of first trimester cfDNA screening for the common autosomal trisomies is appropriate for twin pregnancies due to sufficient evidence showing high detection and low false positive rates with high predictive values."